In animal studies, cannabis has been shown to attenuate both conditioned retching and conditioned gaping. Moreover, human clinical research indicates that cannabis is a powerful and effective remedy for nausea.
In many cases, people with CHS develop nausea refractory to antiemetic medications. They may also find that taking hot showers and baths relieves their symptoms, leading to compulsive behavior.
CB1 receptors are one of the critical components of our endogenous cannabinoid system, or ECS. The ECS is a system of “messenger” molecules that helps our bodies maintain balance, or homeostasis, in every cell and body function. These messengers, called cannabinoids, bind to specific cell receptors and activate their functions. They are produced naturally inside the body, called endocannabinoids, or can be introduced externally, like in cannabis or a related synthetic compound.
When the endocannabinoids (such as THC) bind to CB1 receptors, they cause the activation of different pathways in the brain and the rest of the body. This is how cannabis produces many therapeutic effects, including pain relief and euphoria.
The endocannabinoids and CB1 receptors interact with a protein complex called G-protein. This is a complex of proteins and enzymes that regulate the activity of other proteins in the cell. When the cannabinoids bind to CB1 receptors, the G-protein complex is activated, inhibiting adenylyl cyclase, an enzyme that regulates many cell activities.
The inhibition of adenylyl cyclase prevents the production of adenosine triphosphate or ATP. The ATP is the energy source for the cell, and it also acts as a second messenger to activate other essential proteins and cellular functions. The endocannabinoids also suppress the release of a neurotransmitter called GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter. The suppression of GABA is called depolarization-induced suppression of excitation, or DSI.
Phytocannabinoids are plant-derived molecules that interact with the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS) to influence different physiological responses, such as appetite, pain, and mood. They are mainly produced by glandular trichomes that cover the surface of the cannabis plant. Research into cannabis and nausea has been found to have a wide range of medical effects, including controlling nausea and vomiting.
The biosynthesis of phytocannabinoids occurs in specialized disc cells that are located in the glandular trichomes. These are responsible for the formation of all cannabinoid precursors, which are subsequently converted into the acidic phytocannabinoids CBDA and CBCA. In addition, a series of reactions produces the phytocannabinoids THC and CBG. In the case of THC, a pentyl group forms in the lateral position, while a propyl form is present in the case of CBG. This is important when attempting to distinguish between the two phytocannabinoids by chemical analysis, which can be done using gas chromatography or, more accurately, liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.
THC is a psychoactive compound that acts as an activator of the CB1 receptor and causes various effects, such as euphoria, relaxation, and increased heart rate. It also increases blood flow to the prefrontal cortex, a brain area associated with decision-making, attention, and motor skills. Additionally, THC has been shown to inhibit the breakdown of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in cells. This increases cellular energy, which stimulates the production of cannabinoids and other metabolic processes.
Cannabis and many other natural and synthetic compounds act on the CB 2 receptors. When a compound is a direct agonist at the CB 2 receptor, it reduces inflammation and suppresses specific autoimmune responses. However, these compounds also stimulate CB 1 receptors and can have psychoactive effects when they bind to them. Finding pharmaceuticals specifically targeting the CB 2 receptor without causing psychotropic side effects is challenging.
Selective CB2 receptor agonists have shown promise in reducing pain without affecting the central nervous system. They can help to treat conditions like neuropathic pain and chronic inflammatory disorders. They also treat other ailments such as cancer, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy.
The CB receptors function as a complex system of chemical signals and cellular receptors. They are part of the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS comprises two main components: endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors.
Endocannabinoids and phytocannabinoids activate the CB receptors. When a phytocannabinoid binds to a CB receptor, it sends a message to the cell to release g-proteins. These bind to other proteins and cells, triggering various processes to keep your body balanced.
The complex system of neuronal signaling molecules and receptors, the endocannabinoid system (ECS), is densely packed throughout our brains and bodies. The CB1 receptors in the brain are more numerous than all of the other receptor types combined and act as traffic cops to control the levels and activity of other neurotransmitters. Inhibitory modulation predominates typically in any given pathway, but ECs can quickly change this balance.
The ECS also acts as a natural pain regulator, and it can even help you cope with traumatic life experiences by helping you forget them. This process is called “declarative memory.”
But when you take too much THC can trigger a condition called CHS, or cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome, characterized by vomiting. If you suffer from this rare disorder, you should avoid smoking or ingesting cannabis.
Research suggests that the endocannabinoid receptors and their associated synthesizing and degrading enzymes play a crucial role in normal brain development. Acting as instructive signals, they promote neural progenitor proliferation and pyramidal specification and regulate final brain maturation and connectivity. The ECS also protects the brain from aging, reducing the accumulation of toxic metabolic by-products and misfolded macromolecules.